Beijing (北京 Běijīng) is the capital of the most populous country in the world, the People’s Republic of China. With a population of 21.5 million people, it is the nation’s second-largest city after Shanghai. It was also the seat of the Ming and Qing dynasty emperors until the formation of a republic in 1911. Beijing is the political, educational and cultural centre of the country and as such it is rich in historical sites and important government and cultural institutions.The city is marked by its flatness and arid climate. There are only three hills to be found in the city limits (in Jingshan Park to the north of Forbidden City) and mountains surround the capital on three sides.
The Great Wall of China can be visited at many places along its length of several thousand kilometers. Its condition ranges from excellent to ruined, and ease of accessibility varies straightforward to quite difficult. Note that different sections also each have their own admission fees, e.g. if you want to hike from Jinshaling to Simatai then you probably have to pay twice.The geography of Northern China ranges from mountainous in northeast Liaoning and Hebei provinces, through the grasslands of Ningxia, semi-arid desert of China’s loess plateau, and borders the sand dunes of the Tengger desert of Inner Mongolia. It is the area around Hebei and Beijing that most people associate with the Great Wall, but most of the Great Wall lies in the desert regions of the country.
Situated in Zhaitang Town, Mentougou District, Cuandixia Village (or Chuandixia Village) is about 56 miles (90 km) west of downtown Beijing. Traditional dwelling complexes, colorful historical relics, and unique folk customs characterize this ancient village, surrounded by mountainous landscape.The village was built following the terrain of Longtou Mountain slopes, and is ‘sycee’ shaped from a bird’s eye view. From the top point of the mountain range, the courtyards were arranged in a radial direction down to the foot. Flat ground was very limited, all the houses are crammed in anywhere, and everywhere possible. People took full advantage of every strip of mountain land to build their dwellings so that more land would be given for farming.